Last week I have published in a big picture of how a computer works. In this post, we are going a little deeper and we will see the basics of computer and learn more about the CPU (Central Processor Unit) for beginners.
The main basics of computers are INPUT, CPU, MEMORY, and OUTPUT.
The CPU is where the magic happens. It is there that all programs run.
The memory has access to the CPU. You cannot connect Input to the Memory or Output without the CPU.
The different part of Computer
A computer has two parts:
when looked inside a computer, there is a bunch of things like Circuits, Chips, Plugs, Wires, Speakers, and so on. Hardware is everything that you can see and touch.
Nevertheless, what you cannot see is the software.
Software is all the computer’s codes, programs running on that machine.
It can be anything like Windows, Mac OS, apps, games, websites, maps, etc.
The question is how Software and hardware get to connect to do the magic.
Everything is happening in the CPU.
The CPU is the master chip that controls all parts of the computer.
Inside the CPU, there are small circuits that handle specific tasks. Each circuit is for a specific task to do different things.
It can be a circuit to do the Math and logics, another circuit to send and receive information to and from different parts of the computer.
The real magic about CPU is that it knows which circuits to use and when to use it.
CPU receives simple command or instruction that tells it which circuit to use.
– An addition circuit can tell the CPU to add a number
– A save circuit can tell CPU to store that number in the memory.
Information coming into the computer by Input is converted to binary numbers. Binary numbers transmit all inputted information to the CPU.
When you type the letter “a” in the keyboard, it’s transmitted to the CPU as Binary number, then the CPU request instructions on how to draw the letter “a” from the memory, it process and save back to the memory. It happens so quickly from the moment you press the keyboard to the display on the screen.
Binary numbers are 0’s and 1’s.
Example of binary: 10101001
Those Binary are circuits of switches ON or OFF, TRUE or FALSE, that combined mean something that CPU understands. That binary information is stored in the memory, then CPU fetches it to perform the tasks one after another. They are the sequence of instructions to follow, and these instructions are called computer programs.
Basics of Software
We do also have two different types of software
- Operating System (OS)
- Applications (App)
Operating System is the system that manages computer hardware, software resources and provides common services for a computer program.
Examples of OS, Windows, Mac, Linux, Ubuntu, and so on.
Applications are all other specific programs that run on top of the operating system.
Example of applications: Browsers, Office 365, games,
Everything that is software falls under these two types.
Everything that is not an operating system is an application.
In conclusion, we do have four basics of computer, input, CPU, Memory, and Output. Everything is happening in the CPU, it’s there that all information received has to be processed. All input is converted to binary numbers, 0’s and 1’s sent to the CPU then CPU in his turn has to request instructions from the memory how to proceed with the task.
We also see that the requested instructions that CPU has to follow are what we call “computer program” that it is also what we know as “software”. We then saw that we do have two types of software who are Operating System and Applications. Everything that we cannot touch is software, and everything that is not an operating system is an application.
Thanks for reading,
By Alexis Ange Dauli, Web Developer.